Types of cerebral palsy
|Type||Spastic (most common type)||Dyskinetic||Ataxic||Mixed|
|Cause – mechanisms of neurological dysfunction||1. Pyramidal disturbance (upper motor neurons or UMN)
2. No corticospinal inhibition, so the spinal cord is more influential.
|Extrapyramidal disturbance (lower motor neurons or LMN)||Dysfunction in the cerebellum||Pyramidal and extrapyramidal mechanisms|
|Presentation||A. Positive Babinski sign.
B. Affected areas of the body.
|One or more of the following symptoms may be observed:
1. Chorea – jerky movement that is random and rapid
2. Athetosis – writhing movements
3. Choreoathetosis – both chorea and athetosis are present
4. Dystonia – postures are distorted, repetitive, twisted movements
|The following symptoms may be observed:
1. Jerky and uncoordinated movements
2. Imbalanced position of trunk and limbs during voluntary movement
3. Difficulty timing movements
4. May or may not have decreased muscle tone
|Multiple patterns of movement|
|Intellectual Disability – affects 30 to 50% of children with cerebral palsy.||1. Impairments in cognitive function, including attention span, memory, comprehension, decision making, problem solving, processing speed, and language.
2. People with more severe cerebral palsy are more likely to have intellectual impairments.
|Visual Impairments||1. Ocular – strabismus
2. Central – cortical visual impairment
3. Retinopathy of prematurity
4. Nystagmus – involuntary oscillating eye movements (may be present with ataxia)
5. Homonymous hemianopsia – visual field cut (may be present with hemiplegia)
6.Hyperopia – far sightedness
|Hearing, speech and language – affects about 30% of children with cerebral palsy||1. Articulation difficulties
2. Expressive or receptive language problems
3. Reading difficulties