|Ideomotor apraxia||I know what this object is and I want to show you how to use it but the
Mime or imitate a single motor act
Gesturing and pantomiming tool use
Single step motor tasks
|Ideational apraxia||I know what all the tools are and how to use them, but I can’t seem to get the order right
Sequencing multi-step tasks
Holds tools correctly
|Conceptual disorder||What is this and what is it used for?
Loss of tool knowledge and the movements associated with their use.
|Constructional disorder||Copying 2-dimensional (2D) drawings or 3D constructions|
|Dressing apraxia||part of a neglect syndrome
disorder in the body scheme and/or spatial relations.
|Ideomotor apraxia||Gesturing and pantomime, on verbal command||Can conceptualize but not execute the action upon request. Can execute spontaneous gestures and one step motor task when the environmental context induces automatic response|
|Ideational apraxia||Sequencing multi-step task||Problem planning and carrying out the steps in the proper order/sequence|
|Conceptual disorder||Knowledge of tool function and tool-object association||Difficulty selecting adequate tool for that action||
|Constructional disorder||Copy 2D drawings and 3D constructions||Struggle with activities that require something to be formed – arranging, building, drawing. Difficulty with the manipulation of objects in space.||
|Dressing apraxia||Visuospatial coordination plus hemineglect||Difficulty with visuospatial resulting in inability to orient garments correctly, to align them correctly to the body.|
Understanding dressing apraxia
Dressing Apraxia is usually associated with a posterior parietal lesion, especially involving the right hemisphere. If there is a deficit exclusively involving dressing the left side of the body, this would likely be a manifestation of hemineglect.
Visuospatial dysfunction appears to be the underlying deficit in dressing apraxia. Therefore, errors attributable to dressing apraxia include inability to orient the garment correctly, to align it correctly to the body, and to properly introduce the arms/legs into the sleeves/trousers.
Impaired tactile and visuospatial coordination plus a degree of hemineglect may explain why some patients with right parietal lesions have long-term significant difficulty with dressing.
A different type of dressing difficulty may be evident in some patients who appear to have difficulty executing a complex sequence of dressing tasks, as seen when a patient is in a confused state. However, these patients can usually manage one piece of clothing at a time whereas patients with dressing apraxia cannot.
Video: Apraxia case study- dressing apraxia, hemi-neglect.